A musical instrument with a big stomach, a brief and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards within the form of a circle. The body is hollow. In the midst of the entrance part called the chest, there are two small cavities on the sides called “roses”.

Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It isn’t a local Turkish instrument however it has been played in Anatolia for not less than 5 centuries. Besides, within the history, the oud has been performed by a number of civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are a number of types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies an amazing place in Turkish Artwork Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the paperwork and oral tradition because the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.

History of Oud

In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, but lengthy before Farabi, there are oud and comparable devices in miniatures and reliefs. The principle reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he’s a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he dropped at the oud. Farabi, who was a type of who gave the most complete information concerning the oud in his period, added the fifth string to the oud, which was a 4-string instrument till that time. About the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is among the most famous instruments. Tells technical information resembling chords and pitches with figures. While musical instruments have been talked about within the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts within the 10th century, it was stated that probably the most beautiful of these was the oud.

The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved in the Farabi period, were deserted towards the tip of the tenth century. The oud was previously played with a wooden plectrum. The well-known Andalusian musician Ziryab (eleventh century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. At present, plectrums made of flexible plastic are typically used.

The oud instrument made its way to Europe through Spain. Within the thirteenth century, the crusaders introduced it back to Europe, and in time, it turned the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), but it’s been added totally different options from oud, like frets.

The oud, also which grew to become the focal point within the Ottoman palace within the 15th century, gained an irreplaceable value that the general public began to make use of in classical Turkish music in the 19th century.

Oud instrument has a big soundbox linked to a short neck. The instrument has a pear-shaped body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood needs to be light because the bowl is supposed to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the entrance part of the body, contains one or two, generally three sound holes. These sound holes could also be oval or they are often ornamented depending on the lands they are played on. There’s a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound hole in an effort to protect the stomach from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is formed by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from 16 to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.

The quality of the material used within the making of the oudis important. The more the fabric is numerous, the higher it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.

The oud doesn’t have any customary measurement or number of strings. But typically, all the types of ouds have eleven intestine strings that are organized in 5 double-courses with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is performed with a plectrum. Its fretless neck allows the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Middle Eastern music. Oud instrument is suitable for you to enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by playing makams/maqamat.

Oudis performed according to 2 schools of performance. The first is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as precept the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the quantity is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This type requires one other kind of virtuosity.

There are essentially six types of oud when they are considered according to their origin. These types of oud mostly differ in their timbre and there are small size variations between them.

Arabic oud is the most known oud instrument type and possibly the preferred because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It’s heavier and slightly bigger evaluating to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They’ve a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates numerous overtones. Iraqi ouds might also be labeled under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the bottom of the instrument. Because of this feature, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can be called Barbat is more distinct and as a consequence of its form, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.

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