A musical instrument with a big belly, a brief and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards within the shape of a circle. The body is hollow. In the course of the front section called the chest, there are two small cavities on the sides called “roses”.

Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It isn’t a native Turkish instrument but it has been performed in Anatolia for not less than five centuries. Besides, in the history, the oud has been performed by a number of civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are a number of types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies a fantastic place in Turkish Art Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the paperwork and oral tradition as the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.

History of Oud

In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, however long before Farabi, there are oud and related instruments in miniatures and reliefs. The main reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he is a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he brought to the oud. Farabi, who was a type of who gave probably the most comprehensive information concerning the oud in his interval, added the fifth string to the oud, which was a 4-string instrument till that time. Concerning the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is among the most famous instruments. Tells technical information akin to chords and pitches with figures. While musical devices have been talked about in the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts in the tenth century, it was said that essentially the most beautiful of these was the oud.

The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved within the Farabi interval, were deserted towards the top of the 10th century. The oud was previously performed with a wooden plectrum. The well-known Andalusian musician Ziryab (eleventh century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. Right this moment, plectrums made of flexible plastic are usually used.

The oud instrument made its way to Europe by way of Spain. In the 13th century, the crusaders introduced it back to Europe, and in time, it turned the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), however it’s been added completely different options from oud, like frets.

The oud, also which grew to become the focal point within the Ottoman palace in the 15th century, gained an irreplaceable worth that the general public started to use in classical Turkish music within the 19th century.

Oud instrument has a big soundbox linked to a short neck. The instrument has a pear-shaped body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood ought to be light because the bowl is supposed to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the entrance part of the body, contains one or , sometimes three sound holes. These sound holes may be oval or they are often ornamented relying on the lands they’re performed on. There’s a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound hole with a view to protect the stomach from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is formed by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from sixteen to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.

The quality of the material used within the making of the oudis important. The more the fabric is diverse, the higher it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.

The oud doesn’t have any commonplace dimension or number of strings. But generally, all the types of ouds have 11 intestine strings which are organized in five double-courses with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is performed with a plectrum. Its fretless neck permits the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Center Jap music. Oud instrument is suitable so that you can enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by enjoying makams/maqamat.

Oudis performed according to 2 schools of performance. The first is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as principle the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the quantity is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This style requires another kind of virtuosity.

There are essentially six types of oud when they’re considered according to their origin. These types of oud mostly differ of their timbre and there are small size variations between them.

Arabic oud is the most known oud instrument type and maybe the most well-liked because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It’s heavier and slightly bigger comparing to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They’ve a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates plenty of overtones. Iraqi ouds can also be labeled under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the underside of the instrument. Because of this characteristic, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can be called Barbat is more distinct and resulting from its shape, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.