A musical instrument with a large stomach, a short and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards in the shape of a circle. The body is hollow. In the midst of the front section called the chest, there are small cavities on the sides called “roses”.
Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It isn’t a native Turkish instrument but it has been performed in Anatolia for no less than 5 centuries. Besides, within the history, the oud has been played by several civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are a number of types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies a fantastic place in Turkish Artwork Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the documents and oral tradition as the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.
History of Oud
In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, however long earlier than Farabi, there are oud and related devices in miniatures and reliefs. The main reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he is a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he dropped at the oud. Farabi, who was a type of who gave essentially the most complete information in regards to the oud in his interval, added the fifth string to the oud, which was a 4-string instrument till that time. Concerning the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is likely one of the most well-known instruments. Tells technical information such as chords and pitches with figures. While musical instruments had been mentioned in the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts within the 10th century, it was stated that probably the most beautiful of those was the oud.
The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved within the Farabi interval, had been deserted towards the top of the tenth century. The oud was beforehand performed with a wooden plectrum. The famous Andalusian musician Ziryab (11th century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. Today, plectrums made of versatile plastic are generally used.
The oud instrument made its way to Europe by Spain. In the thirteenth century, the crusaders brought it back to Europe, and in time, it turned the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), but it’s been added completely different options from oud, like frets.
The oud, also which grew to become the focus in the Ottoman palace within the fifteenth century, gained an irreplaceable value that the public began to use in classical Turkish music within the 19th century.
Oud instrument has a large soundbox linked to a short neck. The instrument has a pear-formed body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood should be light because the bowl is meant to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the entrance part of the body, accommodates one or , typically three sound holes. These sound holes could also be oval or they can be ornamented depending on the lands they are played on. There is a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound hole with the intention to protect the stomach from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is formed by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from 16 to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.
The quality of the material used within the making of the oudis important. The more the fabric is various, the better it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.
The oud does not have any customary measurement or number of strings. But usually, all the types of ouds have eleven gut strings which might be organized in five double-programs with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is performed with a plectrum. Its fretless neck permits the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Center Eastern music. Oud instrument is suitable for you to enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by playing makams/maqamat.
Oudis performed according to two schools of performance. The primary is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as principle the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the quantity is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This style requires another kind of virtuosity.
There are essentially six types of oud when they are considered according to their origin. These types of oud mostly differ of their timbre and there are small measurement variations between them.
Arabic oud is essentially the most known oud instrument type and possibly the most well-liked because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It is heavier and slightly bigger evaluating to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They’ve a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates numerous overtones. Iraqi ouds can also be categorised under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the underside of the instrument. Because of this feature, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can also be called Barbat is more distinct and because of its shape, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.